|EMMISSION OF THE MAIN POLLUTING SUBSTANCES – EMISSION OF SULPHUR OXIDES (SOx)|
The indicator tracks the trends insulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide.
kt (kilotons per year)
What progress has been made in overall reduction of emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide in the Republic of Macedonia?
In 1990, the overall national emissions of SO2 amounted to 110 kt. In 2016, emissions dropped by 47% compared to 1990 and amounted to 58,7 kt. The reasons for the dropping trend of this polluting substance are related mainly to the reduced emissions of sulphur oxides from public energy and heating plants. The reduction of emissions, especially in 2016, is due to the reduced amount of burnt coal in REK Bitola and the reduced operation of REK Oslomej. It is also important to mention the significant difference in SO2 emissions in 2015 compared to 2016 of 23% due to the aforementioned reasons. The peaks (highest values) of emissions in 2009 and 2011 were caused by increased consumption of coal in the biggest thermal power plant REK Bitola, compared to 2010 when the consumption was lower. In the period 2012-2013, reduction in the emission was due to the reduced time of operation of the second in size power plant REK Oslomej, from 12 to 5 months and reduced consumption of coal by as much as 60%. Lower emissions of SO2 in 2013 compared to 2012 were also a result of the boilers modernization in the biggest thermal power plant REK Bitola. During 2013 and 2014, emissions were relatively stable (-1%).
The Diagram below shows annual trend in the emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide for the period 1990to 2016.
Diagram 1.Trend in emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide
Under the CARDS Programme, the Inventory of air emissions of the main pollutants in the country was established in 2005 in accordance with the EMEP methodology by individual sectors, i.e. activities, and in 2014, the Inventory including all pollutants was prepared.Starting from 2014, the Republic of Macedonia carries out calculations of national emissions for all pollutants.
The emission sources, within this national indicator, are made according to the following categorization:
|Energy Production and distribution|
|Commercial, instiucional and households|
|Use of solvents and products|
Almost all emissions of SO2 originate fromthe sectorEnergy Production and distribution. Thus, the main sources of emissions in 2016 included the following NFR categories of sources: 1A1 Energy industries (Public energy and heating plants), with a share of 86,3% in the total national emission of SO2. Around 6,5% of the total national emission of SO2 originated from the sector – Industry (combustion) as well as 4,8% from the sector Non-Road transport. Other sectors are minor sources of SO2 emissions.
Diagram 2. Emissions ofSOxbysectors in 2016
Which different sectors and processes contribute to sulphur oxides emissions?
NFR category 1A1 Energy industries (Public energy and heating plants) is the key source for sulphur oxides emissions. In 2013 and 2014, almost equal emissions of sulphur oxides were recorded, which were lower compared to 2011 and 2012, due to reduced capacity of REK Oslomej. In 2016, there is a decrease in the emissions of SO2 from NFR category 1A1 due to the non-operation of REK Oslomej and the reduction of the mass of burnt coal in REK Bitola. In general, the same trend of percentage representation of NFR caterories participating in sulfur oxides emissions is noted, with the exception of the above-mentioned reduction in emissions from NFR category 1A1.
Diagram 3. Emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as SO2by NFR categories per year
Sources of data: The data used refers to overall national emissions and emissions categorized by NFR delivered by EEA member and collaborating states to EEA and Secretariat of the United Nations. Data is accessible per country on the following web address:http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/mk/un/clrtap/inventories/envwovm7g/.
- Methodology for indicator calculation
The methodology for this indicator calculation is based on calculated national emissions and emissions by NFR sectors of this pollutant as reported to EEA (European Environmental Agency) and UNECE/EMEP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation for transboundary air pollution transfer under the Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution Transfer) in February 2016. Data used in this report is in accordance with the data submitted, the difference being that additional allocation of national emissions has been made apart from NFR (as sent to international organizations) also by SNAP.
Calculations are in line with the Guidebook of EMEP/EEA on air emissions inventory taking published in 2009, 2013 and 2016. The Guidebook contains emission factors which have been used in the calculations, except for the energy sector where calculations were made by use of country specific factors or use of data from the measurements completed in the period 2008-2016 for this polluting substance and for the sector 1A1a concerning electricity and heat producing plants.
Methodology used for calculation and presentation of this indicator is given in EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of air pollutant emissions of 2009, Guidebook of 2013 and Guidebook of 2016 which may be accessed at the following links (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2009, http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2013 and http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016).
Action Plan for European Partnership, as well as National Plan for approximation of the national legislation with European regulations specifying bylaws that need to be prepared have been adopted.
The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP II) was adopted. It contains the measures that need to be taken to improve the overall status of air quality, including the reduction of emissions of acidifying substances. The National Plan for Ambient Air Protection for the period 2012 to 2017 specifying the measures for air protection on national level and the National Programme for gradual air emissions reduction from 2012 to 2020 have been adopted in order to define and implement measures on national level concerning reduction of sulphur oxides emissions and achievement of projected values for the total emission of this polluting substance on national level.At the same time, for the purpose of air quality improvement in certain local self-government units (LSGUs) with action plans, a program was prepared for the City of Bitola. Air quality plans and short term action plans for city of Skopje and city of Tetovo were prepared in the Twining project “Further strengthening of the capacities for effective implementation of the acquis in the field of air quality”, which were adopted by the councils of the municipalities. National plan for reduction of pollution for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and dust (TSP) for existing Large Combustion Plant (LCP) has been prepared.The plan was approved by the Energy Community and the revised plan was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in December 2017.
Does any of the national documents set target or target should be achieved in accordance with other international documents?
National strategic documents listed as references in the above text provide guidelines and specify actions that should be undertaken as a matter of priority. It is important to mention thatbylaws have been prepared in the area of air emissions transposing Directives 96/61/EC, 2000/81/EC, 2000/76/EC, 99/13/EC and 2001/81/EC, ranging between 90 and 100%.
In accordance with the requirements of the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, inventory based on EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of polluting substances into the air, setting the target of regular inventory of pollutants in tons per year following the n-2 principle, where n is the current year.
Also, in accordance with Directive 2001/81/ЕC, as well as Gothenburg Protocol, the ceilings of the amounts of emissions have been set at the level of the Republic of Macedonia for 2010 that shall not be exceeded at the annual level of 2010. The Executive Body of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, upon submission of the values of national ceilings in order to enrol the Republic of Macedonia in Annex II of the Gothenburg Protocolrequested correction of the values considering the reported data on air emissions of the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ammonia at national level. Changes in the values of these pollutants were incorporated in the Rulebook amending the Rulebook on upper limits – emission ceilings of pollutants for the purpose of setting projections for certain period concerning reduction of the quantities of pollutant emissions at annual level published in July 2014. This Rulebook also sets the national upper limit – ceiling for the emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide of 110 kilotons. The national upper limit-ceiling for SOx has not been exceeded for the last three years.
Diagram 4. Comparison of the national emissions of SO2in the period 2014-2016with the upper limit-ceiling for 2010
According to the presented annual calculated emissions, the Republic of Macedonia is in compliance with the Gothenburg Protocol for this polluting substance. Older date protocols on sulfur also set targets for this polluting substance, namely: Protocol on reduction of sulphur oxides emission or their transboundary transfer by at least 30%, under which the national emissions of sulphur oxides expressed as sulphur dioxide should be reduced by 30% relative to 1980 (this target was not achieved in 2014) and Protocol regarding further reduction of sulphur oxides emission, under which emissions in n-2 year (where nis the current year) should not exceed the emissions of 1990 and the country is compliant with this Protocol.
With reference to sulphur oxides, based on the Decision of the Ministerial Council of the Energy Community (D / 2013/05 / MC-S-end), for the purpose of reducing the emissions of certain pollutants in the air from large combustion plants (LCP), as already mentioned, a National Emission Reduction Plan (NERP) has been prepared and adopted. The Plan sets the national upper limits-ceilings for sulphur dioxide from large combustion plants for 2018, 2023 and 2027.REK Bitola is already undertaking activities for finding financing for the start of the desulphurization process, which would significantly reduce the emissions of sulfur dioxide.
The Law on Ambient Air Quality adopted in August 2004 and amended several times afterwards (Official Gazette of RM no. 67/2004, 92/2007, 83/2009, 35/10, 47/11, 100/12, 163/2013,10/2015 и 146/2015) is framework law in the area of air. The goals of this Law include avoiding, prevention and reduction of harmful effects on human health and environment as a whole, prevention and abatement of pollutions leading to climate change, as well as provision of appropriate information on the quality of ambient air.
On the basis of the Law on Ambient Air Quality, 16 bylaws were prepared and adopted to introduce limit values for air quality and air emissions, methodology of air quality and air emissions monitoring, manner of preparation of planning documents for air protection against pollution, manner of informing the citizens and international organizations, etc.
In 2010, all 8 Protocols to the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution – CLRTAP were ratified. Owing to the requirement for amendment of the annexes with regard to emissions in the baseline year (1990) and national emission ceilings for 2010, the Gothenburg Protocol and 1995 Protocol on sulphur entered into force for the Republic of Macedonia in 2014 upon adoption of the values set in Annex II of these Protocols. In relation to the obligations for calculation of emissions of sulphur and its oxides, the following protocols or international ratified agreements are of relevance:
Protocol to 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning further reduction in sulphur emissions. The Protocol was ratified by the Law on Ratification (Official Gazette of RM no. 24/2010);
Protocol to 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning reduction of sulphur oxides emission or their transboundary transfer by at least 30%. The Protocol was ratified by the Law on Ratification (Official Gazette of RM no. 24/2010);
Protocol to 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning reduction of acidification, eutrophication and ground ozone (Gothenburg, 1999). The Protocol was ratified by the Law on Ratification (Official Gazette of RM no. 135/2010), while Republic of Macedonia became an equal member of the protocol in 2014.
- Reporting obligations are set on annual level towards international agreements – UNECE-CLRTAP and ЕЕА
- Annual Report of Processed Data on Air Emissions
|Code||Title of the indicator||Compliance with CSI ЕЕА or other indicators||Classification by DPSIR||Type||Linkage with area||Frequency of publication|
|MK NI 050||Emissions of the main pollutingsubstances – sulphur oxides (SOx)||EEA