|THREATENED AND PROTECTED SPECIES|
This indicator shows the number of species present in the Republic of Macedonia and assessed as globally threatened and/or protected by European instruments, such as: Rio Convention on Biological Diversity, Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Hague Agreement on the Conservation of Migratory Waterbirds, London Agreement on Bats Protection, EU Directives on habitats and wild birds and Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, protected at national level.
At present, the indicator shows the status of the number of endemic and threatened species at national level, identified in accordance with the relevant international documents and the national legislation:
- Number of endemic and threatened wild species of plants (flora)
- Number of endemic and threatened wild species of native fungi
- Number of endemic and threatened wild species of animals (fauna)
- Number of species
How many species of global/ European significance are protected by national instruments?
Abundance and variety of ecosystems, types of natural habitats and wild species, as well as genetic resources, are the main features of biological diversity in the Republic of Macedonia. According to the available information, this wealth comprises the imposing number of around 17.604 species, out of which 976 species are endemic species.
Considering the fact that national Red Lists of animals, plants and fungi are under establishment, the analysis of threatened and protected wild species has been made in accordance with international criteria contained in a number of multilateral documents (conventions, agreements, Global Red List, European Red List, EU Directives).
Thus, the IUCN World Red List contains 72 taxa of higher plants from the Republic of Macedonia, 19 of which are local endemic taxa.
The Annexes of the Bern Convention include 12 species of higher plants.
The European List of vertebrate animals includes 113 species, of which: 30 fish species, 66 bird species16 mammals and 1 reptile species. Out of the total of 20 endemic fish species from the Republic of Macedonia, 17 have been enrolled in the category of globally threatened species. The total number of identified “Emerald” species (under Resolution No.6 to the Bern Convention) on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia is 165 species.
Figure 1. Number of protected species of animals
Figure 2. Number of endemic species of animals
Figure 4. Number of protected species of plants
Data coverage: excel
Sources of data: Study on the state of biodiversity in the Republic of Macedonia (2003), Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biodiversity in the Republic of Macedonia (2004), Report on the Establishment of National Emerald Network in the Republic of Macedonia (2009), Analysis and Valorization of Species Diversity in the Republic of Macedonia Macedonia (2010), Fifth National Report of the Republic of Macedonia to the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity (2016), Final Report on the creation of ecological network NATURA 2000 in MK, section on distribution of populations and status of endangered species flora and fauna (MEPP, 2017).
The flora of the Republic of Macedonia is very rich and diverse and represented by 5.843 species, of which 2.169 algae and 3.674 species of plants. Recent flora of higher plants is a mosaic of various floral elements: Tertiary relicts, Mediterranean, Greek-Asia Minor, Illyric, Caucasian, Middle European, Skardo-Pindian, Eurasian, Arctic-Alpine, cosmopolitan, among which 228 species are endemic (Balkan, South Balkan, Macedonian, local, etc.). The highest number of endemic plant species (114) has been recorded with Angiosperms.
The National Red List of threatened wild plant species is under establishment. The number of threatened wild plant species is shown in Table 1. The assessment of threat of species by taxonomic groups has been carried out in accordance with international criteria contained in several international documents (conventions, agreements, Global Red List, European Red List, EU Directives).
TheIUCNGlobalRedListcontains 72 taxa from the RepublicofMacedonia, 19 of which are local endemic species. The Annexes of the Bern Convention list 12 plant species having their area of spreading on the territory of the RepublicofMacedonia.
Lichens are represented by 450 species. Considering lichens studied in the Republic of Macedonia, no lichen species have been included in Annexes I and II of EU Habitat Directive. On national level, 12 lichen species have been identified to have status of being threatened.
Fungi compose exceptionally heterogeneous group of organisms and explorations so far have focused on the phyla of Ascomycotaand Basidiomycota, while others are poorly studied. The total number of studied and recorded native fungi on the territory of the RepublicofMacedoniais 2000 species. Most of those belong to the phyla Myxomicota (10), Oomycota (20), Zygomicota(35), Ascomycota (130) and Basidiomycota (1050).
From among studied native fungi in the Republic of Macedonia, no species has been included in Annexes II and IV of the Habitat Directive. The Preliminary National Red List of threatened fungi species includes 67 species belonging to the phylum of Basidiomycota. There are 72 protected species, with 4 endangered fungi with endangered status.
Fauna diversity is characterized with high extent of taxonomic diversity, represented by 13.320 species and 229 subspecies or 13.549 taxa in total.
Invertebrate animals(Invertebrata)are represented by 13.000 species, 635 of which are endemic. There are 43 species protected, and 28 species are endangered.
Vertebrate wild animals (Vertebrata)are represented by 549 species of which 34 species are endemic. The class of fish covers 85 species of which 27 species are endemic (34.5%). The class of amphibians includes 15 species of which 4 endemic species. The class of reptiles includes 32 species, no endemics, as well as in birds involving 333 species, but no endemic species are registered. In the class of mammals there are 84 species and 3 endemic species are registered. Also in terms of the degree of endangerment of the populations of vertebrate animals in the class of fish, 15 species are included, which are included in the category of globally endangered species.
It is of particular importance to point out that the fauna of vertebrate animals includes 113 species that have been enrolled on the European Red List, namely: 30 species of fish, 66 birds, 16 mammals and 1 reptile species. The National Red List of threatened fauna species is under development.
Within the species diversity, particular significance is attributed to the identified “Emerald” species. Namely, total of 165 species have been identified, as follows: 6 species of invertebrate animals, 154 vertebrate animals (12 species of fish, 3 species of amphibians, 7 species of reptiles, 115 species of birds, 17 species of mammals and 5 species of plants).
Two lists of strictly protected and protected species were adopted on national level (2011).
List 1: Strictly protected wild species in the Republic of Macedonia includes: 9 species of native fungi, 51 plant species, 36 invertebrate species and 98 vertebrate species.
List2: Protected wild species in the Republic of Macedonia includes: 63 species of native fungi, 12 species of lichen, 151 plant species, 507 invertebrate species and 87 vertebrate species.
List of relevant policy documents:
The Second National Environmental Action Plan, in its Chapter on Nature, emphasizes the goal of the establishment of integrated system for nature and biological diversity protection, in line with multilateral agreements and EU standards, through the measure for application of mechanisms for further implementation of the National Strategy for Biological Diversity Protection with Action Plan and the National Capacity Self-Assessment (NCSA), the Law on Nature Protection and creation of appropriate conditions for Natura 2000 network establishment. It envisages action towards development of National Red Lists and Red Book of the Republic of Macedonia.
The National Strategy for Biological Diversity Protection with Action Plan (NSBAP) defines integrated approach to the protection and sustainable use of components of biological diversity. The Strategic Action Plan (SAP) outlines the specific actions to be taken to achieve the targets. One of the measures in this document is the Protection of Species, through several actions concerning elaboration of National Red Lists and Red Book of the Republic of Macedonia, and protection of globally endangered wild species. Particularly important conservation activities concern protection of butterflies, Pelister, Pelagonia and Lokven dragonfly, Macedonian crayfish, From among vertebrate animals, critically endangered and endangered endemic and other fish species (lamprey, trout, eel), amphibians (sand-hoppers, frogs), reptiles (turtles, lizards, snakes), birds of prey (vultures, eagles, falcons, wild species of migratory waterbirds, other wild bird species, small size mammals (rodents, bats), wild carnivores: bear, lynx, wolf, golden jackal, otter, marten, badger, souslik, Balkan snow vole, Balkan chamois, red deer, deer, etc.
From among plants, the following have been identified: endemic and relict species Ema’s Thymus oehmianus, Alshar’s Thymus alcharensis, Macedonian ramonda (Ramonda macedonica), Balkan ramonda(Ramonda serbica), Mariana’s tulip(Tulipa marianae), Sharplanina tulip (Tulipa scardica), Mayer’s nepeta (Nepeta ernesti-mayeri), Alshar’s violet (Viola allchariensis), Arsen’s violet (Viola arsenica), Koshaninova violet (Viola kosaninii), spring Adonis flower (Adonis vernalis), orchids (Orchidaceae), Macedonian dwarf pine (Pinus mugo macedonicus), Macedonian oak (Quercus macedonicus), etc.
The Law on Nature Protection provides for elaboration of National Red Lists and Red Book of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as proclamation of strictly protected wild species and protected wild species, by which they shall acquire the status of natural heritage. It is also legal obligation to establish Cadastre of protected areas and Registry of natural heritage including also strictly protected and protected wild species in the Republic of Macedonia.
Identification of the extent of threat for certain species of plants, lichens, fungi and animals found in the Republic of Macedonia, which are of global, European and national significance and definition of measures for their protection and conservation.
- UNEP/CBD Secretariat
- Secretariat of UNEP/CMS, AЕWA, EUROBATS
- Secretariat of BC/CE
|Code||Title of the indicator||Compliance with CSI/ЕЕА or other indicators||Classification by DPSIR||Type||Linkage with area||Frequency of publication|
|MK NI 007||Threatened and protected species||CSI 007||Threatened and protected species||S/I||
||5 – annually|