|EMMISSION OF HEAVY METALS – LEAD (Pb)|
The indicator tracks the trends inlead (Pb).
t (tons per year)
What progress has been made in overall reduction of emissions of lead in the Republic of Macedonia?
Total national emissions of Pb in 1990 amounted to 109,4 t, with emissions steadily decreasing since 2006 to about 8 t, and till 2016 are reduced by 98%, to 2.5 t, compared to 1990. The most important reductions occur in the sectors Road transport and Industry (production). In 2016 compared to 2015 the reduction of Pb emissions are due to a significant reduction in industrial processes.
The Diagram below shows annual trend in lead (Pb) emissions for the period 1990 to 2016.
Diagram 1.Trend in emissions of lead (Pb)
Under the CARDS Programme, Inventory of air emissions of the main pollutants in the country was established in 2005 in accordance with the EMEP methodology by individual sectors, i.e. activities, and in 2014 Inventory including all pollutants was prepared.
Sectors based on the above mentioned methodology and SNAP – selective nomenclature of air pollution are presented in the table below:
|Energy Production and distribution|
|Commercial, instiucional and households|
|Use of solvents and products|
In total national Pb emissions in 2016 4 sectors participate practicly equally: Industry (combustion), Commercial, institutional and households, Energy production and distribution and Non-Road transport with shares of 22.5%, 21.2%, 20.1% and 19.4%, respectively. Smaller participation in emissions comes from the sector Industry (production) with share of 11.8%.
Diagram 2. Emissions oflead (Pb) bysectors per year in 2016
Which different sectors and processes contribute to emissions of lead (Pb)?
Main sources of Pb emissions in 2016 represent NFR categories 1A2 – Manufacturing industries and Construction, 1A4 – Othe sectors and 1A1 – 1 Energy industries witth shares of 38% (only 1% in 1990), 26% (only 1% in 1990) and 20% (only 1% in 1990), respectively. NFR category 2 – Industrial processes participate with share of 12% in total Pb emissions in 2016 (14% in 1990) with a note that there is a significant reduction in Pb emissions in 2016 compared to 2015 by 87% due to a change in the methodology of calculating the emissions from the subcategory 2C1 Manufacture of iron and steel.
It should be noted that in 1990 the largest share in the Pb emissions came from the NFR category 1A3 – Transport with a share of 84%, while in 2016 the share of this category is only 2%.
NFR categories 5 – Waste, 1B – Fugitive emissions and 3 – Agriculture are insignificant sources of Pb emissions.
Diagram 3. Emissions of lead (Pb) by NFR categories per year
Sources of data: The data used refers to overall national emissions and emissions categorized by NFR delivered by EEA member and collaborating states to EEA and Secretariat of the United Nations. Data is accessible per country on the following web address:http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/mk/un/clrtap/inventories/envwovm7g/.
- Methodology for indicator calculation
The methodology for this indicator calculation is based on calculated national emissions and emissions by NFR categories of this pollutant as reported to EEA (European Environmental Agency) and UNECE/EMEP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation for transboundary air pollution transfer under the Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution Transfer) in February 2016. Data used in this report is in accordance with the data submitted, the difference being that additional allocation of national emissions has been made apart from NFR (as sent to international organizations) also by sectors.
Calculations are in line with the Guidebook of EMEP/EEA on air emissions inventory taking published in 2009, Guidebook of 2013 and Guidebook of 2016. The Guidebook contains emission factors which have been used in the calculations.
Methodology used for calculation and presentation of this indicator is given in EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of air pollutant emissions of 2009 and Guidebook of 2013 which may be accessed at the following links http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2009, http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2013and http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016).
Action Plan for European Partnership, as well as National Plan for approximation of the national legislation with European regulations specifying bylaws that need to be prepared have been adopted.
The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP II) was adopted. It contains the measures that need to be taken to improve the overall status of air quality, including the reduction of emissions of acidifying substances. The National Plan for Ambient Air Protection for the period 2012 to 2017 specifying the measures for air protection on national level and the National Programme for gradual air emissions reduction by 2020 have been adopted in order to define and implement measures on national level.
At the same time, for the purpose of air quality improvement in certain local self-government units (LSGUs) with action plans, program was prepared for the City of Bitola,. Air quality plans and short term action plans for city of Skopje and city of Tetovo are prepared in the Twining project “Further strengthening the capacities for effective implementation of the acquis in the field of air quality”, which were adopted by the councils of the municipalities. Additionally the municipality of Veles also has prepared and adopted air quality plan in November 2017.
Does any of the national documents set target or target should be achieved in accordance with other international documents?
National strategic documents listed as references in the above text provide guidelines and specify actions that should be undertaken as a matter of priority. It is important to mention thatbylaws have been prepared in the area of air emissions transposing Directives 96/61/EC, 2000/81/EC, 2000/76/EC, 99/13/EC and 2001/81/EC, ranging between 90 and 100%.
In accordance with the requirements of the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, inventory based on EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of polluting substances into the air, setting the target of regular inventory of pollutants in tons per year following the n-2 principle, where n is the current year.
Also, targets – basic obligations for this polluting substance are also set in the Protocol to the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning heavy metals, ratified in our country in 2010 (Official Gazette of RM no.135/2010).
Under the Protocol, national overall emissions of Pb in n-2 year (where n is the current year) should not exceed the overall emission calculated for 1990 (taken as baseline year). The Republic of Macedonia is in compliance with this Protocol considering the emissions presented here for 2014. Compared to 1990, emissions of this pollutant have been reduced by 96%.
The Law on Ambient Air Quality adopted in August 2004 and amended several times afterwards (Official Gazette of RM no. 67/2004, 92/2007, 83/2009, 35/10, 47/11, 100/12, 163/2013,10/15 и 146/15) is framework law in the area of air. The goals of this Law include avoiding, prevention and reduction of harmful effects on human health and environment as a whole, prevention and abatement of pollutions leading to climate change, as well as provision of appropriate information on the quality of ambient air.
On the basis of the Law on Ambient Air Quality, 16 bylaws were prepared and adopted to introduce limit values for air quality and air emissions, methodology of air quality and air emissions monitoring, manner of preparation of planning documents for air protection against pollution, manner of informing the citizens and international organizations, etc.
In relation to this polluting substance, the limit values and thresholds for assessment in accordance with the Framework Air Directive 2008/50/EC are prescribed in the following bylaws: Decree on the limit values for the levels and types of polluting substances in the ambient air and alert thresholds, deadlines for limit values achievement, margines of tolerance for the limit value, target value ands and long-term objectives and Rulebook on criteria, methods and procedures for ambient air quality assessment.
With regard to obligations for calculation of the emissions of lead (Pb), the following protocol as international ratified agreement is of relevance:
Protocol to the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution concerning heavy metals, ratified in our country in 2010 (Official Gazette of RM no.135/2010).
- Reporting obligations towards international agreements – UNECE-CLRTAP and ЕЕА
- Annual Report of Processed Data on Air Emissions
|Code||Title of the indicator||Compliance with CSI ЕЕА or other indicators||Classification by DPSIR||Type||Linkage with area||Frequency of publication|
|MK NI 063||Emissions of heavy metals – lead (Pb)||EEA