|EMMISSION OF PARTICULATE MATTER – PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) HAVING DIAMETER OF 2.5 MICROMETERS OR LESS|
The indicator tracks the trends inemissions of particulate matter having diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5).
kt (kilotons per year)
What progress has been made in overall reduction of emissions of particulate matters having diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) in the Republic of Macedonia?
In 1990 total national emissions of PM2.5 amounted to 32,5 kt. For comparison, in2016 emissions are significantly reduced by 57% and amount to 14 kt. The main reason for the decline is due to lower emissions from Industrial processes (ferroalloy production), Energy industry and Other sectors, where emissions reduction is 82%, 75% and 25%, respectively, compared to 1990.
The Diagram below shows annual trend in PM2.5 emissions for the period 1990 to 2016.
Diagram 1.Trend in PM2.5 emissions
Under the CARDS Programme, Inventory of air emissions of the main pollutants in the country was established in 2005 in accordance with the EMEP methodology by individual sectors, i.e. activities, and in 2014 Inventory including all pollutants was prepared.
Sectors based on the above mentioned methodology and SNAP – selective nomenclature of air pollution are presented in the table below:
|Energy Production and distribution|
|Commercial, instiucional and households|
|Use of solvents and products|
The main sources of emissions of solid particles up to 2,5 micrometers PM2,5 in 2016 are sectors: Commercial, institutional and households (mainly household heating), Industry (production) (mainly 2C2 Ferroalloy production), and Energy production and distribution with shares of 63,3%, 18,7% and 6,1%, respectively.
Diagram 2. Emissions of PM2.5 by sectors in 2016
Which different sectors and processes contribute to PM2.5 emissions?
The main sources of PM2.5 emissions are the NFR categories 1A4 – Other sectors (mainly heating in households), 2 – Industrial processes (mostly2C2 Production of ferroalloys) with shares of 63% and 20% respectively. Smaller sources of PM2.5 emissions are the NFR categories for 2016 1A1 Energy industries and 1A2Manufacturing Industries and Construction with shares of 6% both.
NFR categories 1B – Fugitive emissions, 3 – Agriculture and 5 – Waste are insignificant sources of PM2.5 emission.
Emissions of PM2.5 in 2001, 2002 and 2009 were very low compared to other years. The reasons for this are that emissions originating from ferroalloys production were very low owing to the fact that the during these years the ferrosilicon producing company operated with limited capacity and produced quantities of ferrosilicon were by 80-90% lower compared to production in 2014.
From 2013 to 2014, emissions dropped again by 25% due to reduced emissions from ferroalloys production, as well as reduced emissions from household heating. There is a significant reduction in emissions in 2016 compared to 2015 with 29% and occurs primarily due to the large reduction of PM2.5 emissions from NFR categories: 2 – Industrial processes and use of products (mainly 2C2 Ferroalloy production), due to the reduced capacity in the operation of the ferrosilicon production plant, 1A1 – Energy industries and 1A4 – Other sectors.
Diagram 3. Emissions of PM2.5 by NFR sectors per year
Sources of data: The data used refers to overall national emissions and emissions categorized by NFR delivered by EEA member and collaborating states to EEA and Secretariat of the United Nations. Data is accessible per country on the following web address:http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/mk/un/clrtap/inventories/envwovm7g/.
- Methodology for indicator calculation
The methodology for this indicator calculation is based on calculated national emissions and emissions by NFR categories of this pollutant as reported to EEA (European Environmental Agency) and UNECE/EMEP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe/Cooperative programme for monitoring and evaluation for transboundary air pollution transfer under the Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution Transfer) in February 2016. Data used in this report is in accordance with the data submitted, the difference being that additional allocation of national emissions has been made apart from NFR (as sent to international organizations) also by sectors.
Calculations are in line with the Guidebook of EMEP/EEA on air emissions inventory published in 2009, 2013 and 2016.
Methodology used for calculation and presentation of this indicator is given in EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of air pollutant emissions of 2009, Guidebook of 2013 and Guidebook of 2016 which may be accessed at the following links http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2009, http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook-2013 and http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016).
Action Plan for European Partnership, as well as National Plan for approximation of the national legislation with European regulations specifying bylaws that need to be prepared have been adopted.
The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP II) was adopted. It contains the measures that need to be taken to improve the overall status of air quality, including the reduction of emissions of acidifying substances. The National Plan for Ambient Air Protection for the period 2012 to 2017 specifying the measures for air protection on national level and the National Programme for gradual air emissions reduction by 2020 have been adopted in order to define and implement measures on national level.
At the same time, for the purpose of air quality improvement in certain local self-government units (LSGUs) with action plans, program was prepared for the City of Bitola. Air quality plans and short term action plans for city of Skopje and city of Tetovo are prepared in the Twining project “Further strengthening the capacities for effective implementation of the acquis in the field of air quality”, which were adopted by the councils of the municipalitie. National plan for reduction pollution for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and dust (TSP) for existing Large Combustion Plant (LCP) has been prepared. The plan was approved by the Energy Community and the revised plan was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Macedonia in December 2017.
Does any of the national documents set target or target should be achieved in accordance with other international documents?
National strategic documents listed as references in the above text provide guidelines and specify actions that should be undertaken as a matter of priority. It is important to mention thatbylaws have been prepared in the area of air emissions transposing Directives 96/61/EC, 2000/81/EC, 2000/76/EC, 99/13/EC and 2001/81/EC, ranging between 90 and 100%.
In accordance with the requirements of the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, inventory based on EMEP/EEA Guidebook for inventory of polluting substances into the air, setting the target of regular inventory of pollutants in tons per year following the n-2 principle, where n is the current year.
This pollutant has not been included in the current National Programme for gradual reduction of emissions by 2020 and it is planned to include it in the forthcoming period in accordance with amendments of Directive 2001/81/EC and amendments of the Gothenburg Protocol.
As already mentioned, a National Emission Reduction Plan (NERP) has been adopted.
REK Bitola is already undertaking activities for finding funds to start the desulfurization process, which would also reduce the PM2.5 emissions.
The Law on Ambient Air Quality adopted in August 2004 and amended several times afterwards (Official Gazette of RM no. 67/2004, 92/2007, 83/2009, 35/10, 47/11, 100/12, 163/2013,10/2015 и 146/2015) is framework law in the area of air. The goals of this Law include avoiding, prevention and reduction of harmful effects on human health and environment as a whole, prevention and abatement of pollutions leading to climate change, as well as provision of appropriate information on the quality of ambient air.
On the basis of the Law on Ambient Air Quality, 16 bylaws were prepared and adopted to introduce limit values for air quality and air emissions, methodology of air quality and air emissions monitoring, manner of preparation of planning documents for air protection against pollution, manner of informing the citizens and international organizations, etc. For this polluting substance, the limit values and thresholds for assessment in accordance with the Framework Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC are specified in the following bylaws: Decree on limit values of the levels and types of polluting substances in ambient air and alert thresholds, deadlines for achievement of limit values, margines of tolerance for limit value, target values and long-term objectives and Rulebook on the criteria, methods and procedures for ambient air quality assessment.
- Reporting obligations towards international agreements – UNECE-CLRTAP and ЕЕА
- Annual Report of Processed Data on Air Emissions
|Code||Title of the indicator||Compliance with CSI ЕЕА or other indicators||Classification by DPSIR||Type||Linkage with area||Frequency of publication|
|MK NI 061||Emissions of particulate matter having diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5)||EEA
|CSI 040, APE 010